what type of sand is used in golf bunkers
What is a sand bunker in golf?
While bunkers come in all shapes and sizes, there is just one type of bunker according to the rules of golf: a sand bunker. As we explore in this article, sand bunkers on different courses have received different names and are described in various ways, but they’re all considered the same type of hazard.
Can calcareous sand be used in bunkers?
While silica sand is generally preferred over calcareous sands due to its resistance to chemical weathering, many golf courses have been using calcareous sands successfully in bunkers for many years. Therefore, a high acid reaction should not disqualify a sand for consideration in bunkers.
What is the best color for bunker sand?
The color of bunker sand is subjective. Most golfers like the look of white bunker sand contrasting with green surrounds. However, white sands can cause problems on bright, sunny days, creating significant glare. Slightly off-white (light tan) might be a better choice.
What are the two properties of bunker sand that will most influence?
The two properties of bunker sand that will most influence performance are particle size distribution and sand shape. These characteristics can be accurately defined in the laboratory.
How to tell if sand is firm?
The uniformity coefficient (Cu) can be useful for predicting the relative firmness of sand by identifying if the material is narrowly or widely graded. A narrowly graded sand contains many particles of similar size and will have a relatively low Cu. Such material is more likely to produce buried lies and is more prone to erosion. Conversely, a widely graded sand is one that has particles of many different sizes and will generally produce firmer conditions due to the greater tendency for the sand to pack together. As a guideline, the Cu should range between 2.0-5.0. In a study by Bigelow and Hardebeck (2004), no meaningful relationship was detected between the Cu and the modified-penetrometer readings used for measuring firmness. However, Crum et. al. (2003) found a strong correlation between the Cu and bearing capacity – a measurement of material strength – in their study “ Agronomic and Engineering Properties of USGA Putting Greens .” The researchers used a modified California Bearing Ratio testing device to quantify the firmness and stability of sand rootzone mixtures for putting greens. When the Cu increased from 1.8 to 3.0, bearing capacity doubled. While this test is not used to evaluate bunker sands, it demonstrates the value of the Cu for predicting material stability in this study.
What are the characteristics of bunker sand?
There are nine key bunker sand characteristics that can be tested in a laboratory: particle size distribution, particle shape, coefficient of uniformity , angle of repose, penetrometer reading, infiltration rate, crusting potential, chemical reaction and color. The soil moisture release curve (SMRC) and moisture column tests will also be discussed. The following text will summarize these characteristics and how they are tested, and offer new perspectives based on current challenges observed in the field.
How many bunker sands were collected in 1985?
1. Particle size. In 1985 and 1986, USGA agronomists cooperated with golf courses across the United States to assess bunker sand quality and collected a total of 42 bunker sands for laboratory testing.
What is the shape of sand?
Sand particle shape is just as critical as the particle size distribution and is characterized by the degree of angularity and sphericity. Sphericity is an indication of shape. Round particles have high sphericity and oblong particles have lower sphericity . Angular sands resemble a cut piece of glass with sharp, jagged edges, while a well-rounded sand is smooth and looks more like a potato. Figure 1 shows the six classifications used to describe angularity and the three classifications that describe sphericity. Selecting sands that range from very angular to subangular and have low to medium sphericity will likely produce desirable bunker playing conditions. Well-rounded, rounded and high-sphericity sands lead to soft conditions and buried lies.
How much infiltration is needed for bunker sand?
The physical soil testing laboratory community has suggested that the minimum infiltration rate for bunker sand is 20 inches per hour, which was based on the 20-24 inch per hour infiltration rate guideline in the 1993 USGA Recommendations for a Method of Putting Green Construction. However, in my experience testing bunker sands on golf courses, I’ve seen that infiltration rates often decrease significantly – e.g., from 22.8 to only 7.5 inches per hour – in just two to three years! Silt and clay from wind-blown dust, organic debris from clippings, leaves from trees or shrubs, algae growth and soil contamination all can decrease infiltration rates. Bunker sands that initially drain from 30-100 inches per hour should work well, depending on the climate and site conditions.
Why does sand slide down the face of a bunker?
If bunker faces are too steep, sand will continually slide down the face. Testing a sand’s angle of repose can help avoid this issue.
How many mm of bunker sand should be in a bunker?
Less than 15% of the bunker sand particles should be in the very coarse fraction, between 1 and 2 mm.
What is sand bunker?
Golf course sand bunkers are designed to test a golfer’s skill and are a strategic part of the game of golf. As such, sand bunkers are a top concern for golf course superintendents – both in form, and function. When designing and caring for your course, sand quality, appearance and playability of your sand bunkers matter. So, how do you determine the best sand for your sand bunkers?
Why is sand bunker important?
Selecting a bunker sand that is best for your golf course is critical to creating quality playing conditions and maximizing the longevity of your sand bunkers. Golf course sand bunkers are designed to test a golfer’s skill and are a strategic part of the game of golf. As such, sand bunkers are a top concern for golf course superintendents – both in …
What is natural sand and limestone blended for?
Natural sand and limestone blended for superior playability and drainage.
How to determine bunker sand depth?
The ideal sand depth for a given sand and liner combination can be determined by using the Soil Moisture Release Curve (SMRC) or moisture column test. According to the USGA, courses should determine the depth at which the sand dries to approximately 15% moisture content at 1 inch beneath the surface after 24 to 48 hours of drying.
How much sand should be in a bunker?
The sand particles in the finer fraction – i.e., less than 0.25 mm in diameter – are more prone to wind erosion. At windy sites, the USGA recommends more than 80% of the bunker sand should be between 0.25 and 1 mm and 10%-20% should fall in the coarser fraction from 1-2 mm in diameter.
What Types of Bunkers are there in Golf?
From a traditional perspective, there is only one type of bunker in golf: the sand bunker. If your ball finds its way into a sand bunker , you cannot ground your club before making contact with the downswing of your attempted shot.
Where Did Golf Bunkers Come from?
The earliest golf courses were established on links land where sand blew across the course from the natural beaches that hugged the coast.
What is the Difference Between a Sand Trap and a Bunker?
But is there a difference between a sand trap and a bunker? Well, in common parlance, players often refer to sand traps and bunkers as if they’re the same thing, and there’s nothing really wrong with that.
What are Deep Bunkers Called?
You might hear a particularly deep bunker called a pot or pothole bunker on occasion, owing to its size and depth. They tend to exist on links golf courses and originated on Scottish coastal golf courses.
What Happens if a Bunker is Full of Water?
Unfortunately for those of you who find your way into a bunker full of temporary water, you either have to play it as it lies or opt for free relief within the same bunker (at the nearest point of complete relief within one club length, according to Rule 16.1c).
Why are sand bunkers important?
They tend to be shaped and styled in various ways and are included to test the accuracy and strategy of players all over the course.
How many sand traps are there in the 18th hole?
The eighteenth hole alone has 96 sand traps (some of which are sand bunkers, others are waste bunkers).
What makes bunker sand good?
Golf Association considers a list of eight factors when selecting bunker sand: particle size, particle shape, crusting potential, chemical reaction and hardness, infiltration rate, color, penetrometer value and playability. Depending on location and climate, how these factors are ranked vary slightly.
What sand is used for bunker sand?
For many years, selecting bunker sand involved calling the local sand pit. Superintendents were often told, “We have mason sand, brick sand and concrete sand. I think what you want is our mason sand. That stuff would work great for you.” Mason sand might or might not be desirable sand for bunkers, but in the current golf climate, the days of calling the local sand pit are over. There are few places in the United States that have natural sand deposits that meet specifications for great bunker sand. Most premium bunker sand is manufactured in only a few locations throughout the country. These manufactured sands, along with a few rare natural deposits, make the process of finding great bunker sand difficult and expensive.
What are the issues with bunkers?
The amount of sand in a bunker also can be an issue. Golfers need to be reminded sand bunkers are a hazard, but at the same time, bunkers need to be a fair hazard.#N#The major issues with bunkers are sand quality and playability, and obtaining quality bunker sand, which isn’t easy.
How can a superintendent overcome language barriers?
Superintendents can overcome language barriers by drawing pictures of what needs to be done.
How to be effective in cross-cultural communication?
Additionally, be supportive. Effective cross-cultural communication is about being comfortable. Encouraging those who speak weak English gives them confidence, support and a trust in you.
How long has Harsh been superintendent?
Harsh, a superintendent for 7.5 years, says he’s been fortunate to maintain his core group of employees from year to year as well. He says if an employee doesn’t understand English, it’s difficult for him to advance at the course.
Why does Powers cross train his employees?
Powers also cross-trains his employees so everyone knows different jobs and can help each other out – avoiding the language barrier altogether.