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who invented the golf ball typewriter

who invented the golf ball typewriter插图

Horace “Bud” Beattie
The design eliminated the bane of rapid typing: jammed type bars. And with no bars to jam,typists’ speed and productivity soared. The golf ball typing element was designed by an engineering team led byHorace “Bud” Beattie.

Who designed the golf ball typing element for the Selectric?

The golf ball typing element was designed by an engineering team led by Horace “Bud” Beattie. The team members, according to a 1961 advertisement for the Selectric, “began their search by forgetting the past fifty years of typewriter design.” The first type head design had been shaped more like a mushroom,…

Can you use a typewriter to type on a golf ball?

This typewriter is semi-functional. It does go through the motions and makes a great sound but the golfball does not strike the page properly and therefore the resulting type is ilegible. Would look and sound great for most shots except close-ups of the text.

Who invented the typewriter?

In 1865, the first commercially sold typewriter known as Hansen Writing Ball was invented by Rasmus Malling-Hansen. However, the first typewriter to be successfully sold is known as the Sholes and Glidden typewriter and was invented in 1867 by Christopher Latham Sholes together with Samuel Soule and Carlos Glidden.

Who invented the golf ball?

In 1901, Haskell founded the Haskell Golf Ball Company and launched the manufacture of the rubberwound ball. Later that year, his ball “helped” Walter Travis (1861-1927) win the U.S. Amateur and become the first golf player to win a Major using the novel golf ball.

How many Selectric typewriters were sold in 1986?

And by 1986, more than 13 million Selectric typewriters had been sold. For more than 25 years, the Selectric was the typewriter found on most office desks. With 2800 parts, many designed from scratch, the Selectric was a radical departure even for IBM, which had been in the typewriter business since the 1930s and was already a market leader.

What was the first word processor?

With the addition in 1964 of a magnetic tape system for storing characters, the Magnetic Tape Selectric Typewriter (MT/ST) model became the first, albeit analog, word-processor device. The aesthetic design of the Selectric was the responsibility of Eliot Noyes, an architect and industrial designer who served as consulting design director to IBM …

What was the Selectric typewriter?

Less well-known is the Selectric typewriter’s role as one of the first computer terminals. While personal computers, notebook computers and word processing software may have relegated the paper-based typewriter to twentieth-century artifact, the Selectric was the basis for the keyboard input on the revolutionary IBM System/360.

Why is the Selectric name Selectric?

Although it is not documented, it is believed that the Selectric name was inspired by adding this changeable typeface selection to an electric typewriter. By making the golf ball interchangeable, the Selectric enabled different fonts, including italics, scientific notation and other languages, to be swapped in.

Where was the Selectric keyboard made?

When prototypes of the Selectric were already being manufactured at IBM’s typewriter plant in Lexington, Kentucky, Bemer reviewed the Selectric typewriter’s specifications. To him, the Selectric would make a natural computer keyboard.

What is IBM 2741 terminal?

A modified version of the Selectric, dubbed the IBM 2741 Terminal, was adapted to plug into the System/360, and enabled a wider range of engineers and researchers to begin talking to and interacting with their computers.

When was the Selectric typewriter invented?

The selectric typewriter. The Selectric typewriter, launched in 1961, was an overnight hit. “Sales of [the Selectric] in the first 30 days exceeded the forecast for six months. We figured in our branch office that we’d sell 50 or 60 and sold 500 to 600,” IBM salesman John Vinlove told USA Today in 1986 for a story about …

What typewriter was the first to introduce the QWERTY keyboard?

The Sholes and Glidden typewriter was the first to introduce the QWERTY keyboard which is still in use today. It looked like a sewing machine and typed only in capital letters. In 1873, E. Remington and Sons acquired and refine the machine and placed it on the market in July 1874 as Remington No. 1.

What was the demand for Sholes and Glidden’s typing machine?

For industries and corporate businesses, especially in the late 19th century, there was increasing demand for typing machines which Sholes and Glidden’s device was well suited for. However, the public was initially skeptical of the device and viewed it with suspicion.

When was the first typewriter invented?

However, the first typewriter to be successfully sold is known as the Sholes and Glidden typewriter and was invented in 1867 by Christopher Latham Sholes together with Samuel Soule and Carlos Glidden.

What is a vintage typewriter?

retro machine technology. A typewriter is a hand-operated mechanical or electromechanical device for producing printed characters on paper. Like a keyboard, a typewriter has keys that produce different characters on paper when pressed. There are different kinds of typewriters including electric typewriter …

When was the writing machine invented?

The writing machine was introduced in 1874 and only became popular in the 1880s. By the 1980s, typewriters were common in almost all offices in most towns across the world and were used for all writings. With the invention of personal computers and laptops, typewriters have largely been replaced in most offices.

Is the typewriter still used?

However, the QWERTY layout designed for the machine is still used in most devices.

Who is Christopher Sholes?

About Sholes And Glidden Typewriter. Christopher Sholes was an American poet, inventor, politician, and newspaper publisher who came from Wisconsin. He moved to Milwaukee to become an editor of a newspaper but his work was often interrupted by striking compositors at his printing press.

What is the correction tape on a Selectric II?

The tape was activated by a correction key on the bottom right of the keyboard. The key backspaced the carriage by one space and put the machine in correction mode, so that the next character typed would spool from the correction tape and not advance the carriage. The correction function—another key feature that presaged later word processing capabilities—was beloved by users, and eliminated the need for messy and time-consuming correction fluids.

Why did the Selectric typewriter get tangled?

Typebars became tangled when users struck more than one key at once, a frequent error for speedy typists. The type ball essentially eliminated jams.

What is the Selectric II?

The Selectric II. Introduced a decade after the original Selectric, the Selectric II would become the most popular of all Selectric models. It offered enhanced functionality through several new breakthrough features.

What is the backspace key on a Selectric?

The model also included an “express” backspace key that backed the type ball up by an entire line of type.

How many letters are on a golf ball?

An advertisement for the Selectric depicts the type ball’s multiple-font capabilities. The golf balI sports four rows of 22 reverse-image raised letters, numerals and punctuation symbols—88 characters total—molded to its surface. Uppercase letters are molded on one hemisphere of each ball, and lower-case on the other.

What is the golf ball?

The “golf ball” typing element shown here—also known as the type ball and “the single printing element” for its one-piece form—was the linchpin invention powering the Selectric. Thomas Watson Jr. called it “the most totally distinct invention we’ve ever made as a company.” The type balI worked by revolving and tilting—according to the direction of a sophisticated mechanism—as it moved across the page. Each character had a binary code, one for tilt and one for rotate. Before settling on the spherical shape, IBM engineers had experimented with a mushroom-shaped type element.

Where are uppercase letters made?

Uppercase letters are molded on one hemisphere of each ball, and lower-case on the other. IBM engineers and researchers labored for seven years to bring the Selectric to life—and to the production lines at IBM’s US Electric Typewriter Division manufacturing plant in Lexington, Kentucky, and the international manufacturing plant in Amsterdam.

When did Sholes get his patent?

With Glidden and Soulé, Sholes was granted a patent for a typewriter on June 23, 1868; later improvements brought him two more patents, but he encountered difficulty raising working capital for development.

What is an encyclopedia editor?

Encyclopaedia Britannica’s editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.

When was the second model of the pen invented?

His second model, patented on June 23, 1868, wrote at a speed far exceeding that of a pen.…. …brought onto the market by Christopher Latham Sholes in the 1870s, was instrumental in freeing women from housework and changing their social status for good (and also increasing the divorce rate).….

When did Remington sell his patent rights?

In 1873 he sold his patent rights for $12,000 to the Remington Arms Company, a firm well equipped with machinery and skill to carry out the development work that resulted in the machine being marketed as the Remington Typewriter.

Did Sholes improve the typewriter?

Sholes himself continued to make contributions to improving the typewriter, despite poor health during the last several years of his life. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. This article was most recently revised and updated by John M. Cunningham, Readers Editor.

Who invented the information processing system?

information processing: Acquisition and recording of information in analog form. …constructed by the American inventor Christopher Latham Sholes, did not appear until 1867. The mechanical typewriter finally found wide use after World War I. Today its electronic variant, the computer video terminal, is used pervasively to record original text.….

Who invented the page numbering machine?

In 1864 he and a friend, Samuel W. Soulé, were granted a patent for a page-numbering machine. A fellow inventor-mechanic, Carlos Glidden, suggested to Sholes that he might rework his device into a letter-printing machine and referred him to a published account of a writing machine devised by John Pratt of London.

Why was the Gutta Percha Ball so popular?

There are several reasons why the gutta percha ball replaced the featherie which was the standard for more than 300 years. Cheaper production and consequently, lower cost (up to 80 per cent!) are definitely among the main reasons for the success of the guttie. 36 Equally important, its performance wasn’t in any way inferior to that of the featherie. In fact, it could fly even further than its costly counterpart, reaching distances of up to 246 yards. Also, it lasted longer and was less vulnerable to moisture , which was a huge advantage over the featherie, especially in the wet British climate. 37 For obvious reasons, the old ballmaking “dynasties” initially resisted the change but when they realised the effect it had on the game and that the decrease of profits due to the lower cost of the guttie can be compensated by increased production, they accepted the new reality. 38 Even the guttie’s fiercest opponent, Allan Robertson of St. Andrews (1815-1859) changed his viewpoint when he figured out that he could make as many gutties in an hour as he could make featheries in an entire day. 39

What was the name of the ball that was used to play golf?

Gutta Percha Ball (The Guttie) In the mid-19th century, most people could only dream of playing golf. There were at the time fewer than 20 golf clubs around the world, with just three being outside Scotland. But that was not the only thing that prevented most people from playing golf.

How much does a featherie weigh?

It was on average 1 ½ inches in diameter and weighted about 1.4 ounces (39.7 grams) to 1.6 ounces (45.4 grams) which largely corresponds to the size and weight of a modern golf ball. It was typically also treated with chalk or some.

How far can a featherie fly?

Interestingly, the featherie also had excellent flight characteristics as it could reach a distance of up to 175 yards 22; although the longest recorded distance is more than 361 yards. 23 But it also had a quite a few weaknesses. Photo Credit: “A Gourlay” to The Stirling Smith Art Gallery and Museum.

When was the first golf ball invented?

Even though the Haskell’s rubber-wound core ball is traditionally regarded as the first modern golf ball, the origins of the ball that is used by today’s pros and amateurs alike dates from the 1960s. At that time, an American chemical engineer named James R. Bartsch (1933-1991) entered the golf ballmaking business only to find out that he was not going to succeed unless he finds a way to reduce the cost of the materials and labour. He started to experiment with various synthetic materials and refused to give up until he found the perfect formula. Bartsch’s ball, however, wasn’t only more than twice less expensive to produce 63 but it also re-introduced the concept of a solid-moulded ball.

What is the most likely precursor of golf?

A Dutch game known as kolven or kolf that was played with a stick and leather ball at least since the 13th century is by most authors seen as the most probable precursor of golf although there is also evidence of a similar game being played in China during the Song Dynasty (960-1279). 5 6 In addition, the claim to the “invention” of golf has also been laid by the French. This claim is largely based on a late 14th century illustration depicting two individuals playing a golf-like game. However, they could also be playing kolven or kolf. 7 And then there is also the British game known as cambuca, which was played in the 14th century with a small wooden ball and a mallet. 8 But as Hotchkiss notes, the game came to be called gowf, goff and eventually, golf only when the players started hitting the ball with an aim to get it into the hole in the ground. And by the time that happened, the game was very much established in Scotland. 9

How many times has the golf ball revolutionized the game?

According to John F. Hotchkiss (1997), the author of one of the most acclaimed books on the history of the golf ball, the latter revolutionised the game at least four times.

What is a feathery golf ball?

Basically, the feathery was a leather sack filled with boiled goose feathers, then stitched up and painted.

How were feathery golf balls made?

The feathery golf balls were manufactured while the leather and feathers were still wet, and as the leather shrunk while drying, the feathers expanded to create a hardened, compact ball. The Feathery was then painted and sold, often for more than the price of a golf club.

What is the evolution of the golf ball?

The evolution of the golf ball highlights the major changes in the game of golf and depicts important golf landmarks during the long evolution of the game. The development of the golf club, the golf course, and the rules of the game were affected by the evolution of the golf ball itself. The balance (and debate) between technology …

When did rubber core golf balls replace gutty golf balls?

The more modern rubber core golf ball replaced the gutty in 1899. However, the rubber core golf ball of the day did not meet with immediate success. Golfers complained that while the rubber cored golf balls were longer off of the tee they were far too lively on and around the greens.

When was the Brambleberry golf ball invented?

The advent of the rubber core golf ball changed the face of the game of golf as we knew it. This new design was invented in 1898 by Coburn Haskell in association with the BF Goodrich Company.

What was the first game of golf?

There is no question that the first games of golf, as we know it today, were played using wooden golf balls. Wooden golf balls were the first man made golf balls, and although information is scant, it would be a pretty safe bet to assume that a wooden golf ball had some rather interesting playing characteristics.

How many stages are there in the evolution of golf balls?

Four Stages in the Evolution of the Golf Ball. Although it is likely that the very first golf balls were nothing more than round rocks or pebbles, there are four distinctly recognizable stages in the evolution of the golf ball: Wooden Golf Balls.